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13th International Conference on Clinical Research & Clinical Trials, will be organized around the theme “Innovative advancements in global clinical research and clinical trials”
Clinical Trials 2023 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Clinical Trials 2023
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Clinical research is a branch of medical science that investigates the efficacy and accuracy of drugs, medical technologies, and treatment. This comprises systemic, observational, and experimental biomedical studies. Clinical research is important in disease prevention, treatment, diagnosis, and cure. This includes a series of events ranging from pre-clinical animal testing to various phases of drug development. Pre-clinical reviews and non-clinical investigations are a stage of pre-clinical research that occurs before to clinical trials. Treatment research comprises an intervention such as medicine, counselling, or new surgical methods. Prevention research seeks more effective strategies to avoid diseases and problems. Diagnostic research is the practise of looking for more effective approaches to identify disorder conditions. The goal of screening research is to discover better approaches to detect various diseases and health conditions. Quality of life trials look for ways to improve the comfort and quality of life of people who have a chronic illness. Genetic research aims to improve disorder prediction by determining and comprehending how genes and sickness may be related.
Clinical trials are clinical research observations. Prospective behavioural study on humans to address specific questions about biomedical or behavioural therapies. This generates data on the safety and efficacy of the product. Multiple experimental treatments are tried in only one trial in the master protocol. The clinical trial protocol is used to describe and monitor the trial. This procedure includes a detailed research plan to ensure trail safety and health and to provide inspectors with a proper template for trail behaviour. A clinical trial involving novel medications is divided into five stages. Each stage of drug compliance is regarded as its own clinical study. The drug development process will progress through all four stages. Phase 0 - human pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics (testing on 10 to 15 participants). Phase 1 - safety assessment (testing in a small group of 20 to 80 participants). Phase 2 - determining the drug's efficacy (testing with a wider group of 100 to 300 people). Phase 3 consists of final validation of safety and efficacy (testing with a large group of participants ranging from 1000 to 3000). Phase 4 -safety studies during sales (post-marketing studies describe new information such as the treatment's risks, benefits, and recommended use).
Clinical data management ensures that data is collected, integrated, and available at an appropriate quality and cost. It leads to the generation of high-quality, dependable, and statistically sound clinical trial data. The data management plan describes the tasks to be performed in the data processing process and is used to describe data sources, data handling processes, and data control procedures. Clinical trials employing both an electronic CRF database design and a paper CRF. Validation rules are computerised analytic procedures that ensure the integrity and consistency of clinical trial data. Data entry is moving out towards the inspection site where the clinical trials are done using an electronic CRF. Samples obtained during clinical trials are sent to a single central laboratory for analysis. The CRF gathers adverse events reported during the course of the clinical trial; there is a distinct protocol in place to ensure that major adverse events are reported as soon as possible. The clinical data manager has responsibility for ensuring that data is reconciled between different processes.
Clinical trials for distinct drugs and problems are intended to evaluate at least one medication for treating an infection, disorder, and moreover uncovering appealing to maintain the improvement or repeat of a disease or condition. This involves, among other things, remedies, antibodies, and lifestyle adjustments. Clinical trials for behavioural, mental, eating, and sleeping issues. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease clinical trials, Alzheimer's disease clinical trials, Trials on pulmonary/respiratory illnesses, Wounds and traumas, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, gynaecological infections, infectious colitis, and HIV infections are all being researched and studied.
The essential ethical principles of various ailments related to research and scientific study are addressed in the field of research ethics. Medical ethics is a set of moral concepts that apply values to clinical treatment and scientific study. Medical ethics is built on a set of ideals that practitioners can refer to in the event of confusion or conflict. Privacy for research participants is a concept in research ethics that asserts that a person in human subject research has a right to privacy when participating in research. Shared decision-making in medicine (SDM) is a method in which both the patient and the practitioner contribute to the medical decision-making process. Health care providers explain treatments and alternatives to patients in order to provide the resources needed for patients to select the treatment option that best accords with their particular cultural and personal values.
A drug target is a naturally occurring cellular or molecular structure implicated in the pathophysiology of interest that the drug-in-development is intended to act on. It is the process of discovering a new drug and bringing a drug to market when a lead molecule has been found through the drug discovery process. Drug Discovery & advancement is now a cloud-based, intellectual solution that evaluates scientific information and data to uncover known, unknown, and hidden connectivity that can assist improve the huge possibilities of scientific advancement. It is utilised by pharmaceutical businesses, medical device companies, and academic institutions to help with new drug target identification and medication repurposing. Microbes battle for nutrition and dwelling space. Many microbes have acquired abilities to inhibit rival species from reproducing in order to live under these environments. Antimicrobial medications are mostly derived from microbes. The chemical structure must be determined in order to avoid the rediscovery of a chemical agent that is already recognised for its structure and chemical action.
Patient centricity will also hasten the innovation and enhancement of products, technology, and services used by patients in clinical trials. This is owing to the increased emphasis on real-time input. This, in turn, puts greater pressure on the industry to improve, move, and respond with greater agility than ever before. Not only has patient centricity changed the way clinical trials are designed, but it will also influence commercial and outsourcing decisions. Patient-centric medication development also provides a significant opportunity to define meaningful outcomes from the patient's point of view, ensuring that the needs and objectives of patient groups are reflected in research.
Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of drug implementation and effects in large groups of people, and it produces an estimate of the probability of beneficial effects and the probability of bad effects in a population. It is a science that spans both clinical pharmacology and epidemiology. Descriptive epidemiology discusses disease and may include rate calculations. Drug usage studies are typically classified as descriptive studies. Analytic epidemiology researches are classified into two types: observational studies and experimental investigations. Clinical pharmacology is the study of the effects of medications on patients to determine the likelihood of undesirable effects on populations.
Pharmacovigilance is the science and detection of drug-related activities, as well as the assessment, comprehension, and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem. One of the main elements of adverse event reporting is the Individual Case Safety Report. The triage step of a possible adverse event report is critical in determining whether the "four elements" of a valid ICSR are present, which are an identifiable patient, an identifiable reporter, a suspicious drug, and an adverse event. A variety of strategies are used for signal detection. SD is a crucial component of medication use and safety monitoring. A safety signal is defined by the WHO as "reported information on a causal relationship between an adverse event and a drug, the relationship previously unknown or incompletely documented." A risk management strategy is a recorded plan that discusses the hazards associated with the use of a drug and how they are managed. The risks reported in an RMP are classified into three types: identifiable risks, possible risks, and unknown risks. Clinical trial reporting, also known as SAE (serious adverse event) reporting from clinical trials, safety information from clinical studies, is used to establish a drug's safety profile in humans and is a key component that drug regulatory authorities consider when deciding whether to grant or deny market authorization for a drug.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the genome in drug response. It investigates the impact of acquired and inherited genetic variation on drug response in patients by connecting gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. There are several identified genes that are significantly responsible for differences in medication metabolism and response. For the sake of brevity, the focus of this article will concentrate on the genes that are more frequently recognised and used clinically. They are Cytochrome P450s, VKORC1, and TPMT. Patient genotypes are typically classified as Ultra-rapid metabolizer, Extensive metabolizer, Intermediate metabolizer, or Poor metabolizer. Pharmacogenomics could help to limit the occurrence of polypharmacy. It is hoped that with personalised medicinal therapies, patients will not need to take multiple medications to treat the same ailment. Toxicogenomics is a branch of pharmacology that deals with the collecting, interpretation, and preservation of information about gene and protein activity inside a specific cell or tissue of an organism in response to toxic chemical exposure.
Oncology is the study of tumours. Integrative oncology addresses the brain, body, and soul. That is why countless professionals, including medical specialists, have embraced the rapidly expanding field of integrative oncology, which combines the best of conventional and alternative therapies. Clinical trials in oncology have evolved to include phase I dosefinding trials, phase II studies to establish efficacy in a single tumour type, phase III trials comparing standards of care with potential advances in care, and phase IV studies to extend safety and activity data in a postmarketing scenario. Immuno-oncology treatments strengthen our immune system, allowing it to detect and eliminate cancer cells. Because cancer cells are not like other cells in the body, the immune system fights them when it recognises them. Neuro-oncology evaluates and treats patients with essential and optional cancers of the brain, spinal cord, and the layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges).
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and divide to produce more of the same type of stem cell. They are found in multicellular organisms. Adult stem cells and progenitor cells serve as the body's repair system, renewing adult tissues. In mammals, there are two types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are separated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in diverse tissues. Because genetics is the essential base of any creature, studying genetics will provide a powerful technique of discovering hereditary factors in illness aetiology. In recent years, genetic research has shifted from disorders caused by a single gene (for example, Huntington's disease) to common multi-factorial disorders (for example, hypertension) caused by interactions between inherited gene variants and environmental factors such as chemical, physical, biological, social, infectious, behavioural, or nutritional factors. Molecular genes were known to exist on chromosomes; however, chromosomes are made up of both protein and DNA, and scientists were unsure which of the two is in charge of heredity.
Medical Case Reports provides a concentrated valuable collection of cases in various disciplines, making it easy for healthcare practitioners, academics, and others to access clinically essential information about common and rare disorders. The journal primarily focuses on patient disease symptoms, signs, diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up in many domains. Diabetes case study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic condition that arises when the human body is unable to create enough insulin or when cells do not respond to insulin produced. High blood sugar causes symptoms such as frequent urination, thirst, and hunger. Cancer case reports- An estimated 14.1 million new cancer cases occurred worldwide in 2012. More than four out of every 10 cancers occur in nations with low or medium Human Development Indexes.
The formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies, in medical, clinical, and other sorts of research involving humans is known as clinical study design. A clinical study's purpose is to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action of an investigational medical product or procedure, or novel medicine or technology that is in development but has not yet been approved by a health authority. It can also be used to explore a medicine, equipment, or technique that has already been approved but requires additional research, generally in terms of long-term effects or cost-effectiveness. A randomised controlled trial is a form of scientific experiment that seeks to eliminate bias when assessing a novel treatment. An adaptive clinical trial is a clinical study that examines a medical device or treatment by observing participant results on a predetermined schedule and altering trial protocol parameters in accordance with those observations.
The globalisation of clinical research is a relatively new phenomenon in which many of these studies are being conducted on a global basis, with a major increase in clinical trials being conducted in developing nations. From 2005 to 2012, the Asian (30%) and Latin American/Caribbean (12%) regions had the highest average yearly growth rates in clinical trials; other geographic regions had growth rates lower than the global average (8%). Lower-middle income (33%) and low-income (21%) regions saw the highest average annual growth. Emerging economies from low-middle income countries experienced the most country-specific growth, followed by South Korea, Japan, India, Brazil, and Turkey. With the globalisation of clinical trials, it is vital to strengthen legal and ethical criteria to ensure the integrity of study participants. Observers remarked more than a decade ago that research was being conducted in impoverished countries with no respect for international ethical guidelines. The process of globalisation of clinical trials can thus be advantageous because, for example, it provides participants with access to new treatments; however, it requires discussion and monitoring of ethical questions related primarily to ensuring the integrity, welfare, and safety of the research participant; to bioethical frames of reference, such as autonomy, beneficence, justice, and fairness.
Clinical studies for the advancement of novel drugs are typically initiated and funded by industry. There are also numerous clinical studies that have been initiated by educated clinical scientists. Clinical research, whether initiated by industry or by academic clinical examiners, is frequently carried out in national, European, and global consortia, which can occasionally be large. Clinical research raises serious moral and security concerns. The safety of participants in a clinical trial is critical. As a result, clinical research is extremely supervised. Many components of this control are combined at the European level as well as around the world to encourage cooperative actions across borders.
Bioinformatics, a blend of biotechnology, genetics, and data innovation, investigates and even quantifies information. It even plays a significant role in understanding the subatomic processes that underpin life. Clinical bioinformatics is the name given to the branch of bioinformatics that deals with clinical preliminary data. Understanding the link between clinical informatics and bioinformatics aids in the discovery and development of new diagnosis and treatments for infections. The therapeutic use of bioinformatics is linked to research and innovation in order to comprehend subatomic instruments and potential treatments for human illnesses.
Post marketing surveillance is an important component of the science of pharmacovigilance, which entails monitoring the safety of pharmaceutical goods and medical devices after they are introduced to the market. Because clinical trials—involving relatively few individuals who typically do not have additional medical conditions that exist in the general population—are the foundation for the acceptance and approval of drugs and medical devices, post-marketing surveillance can further hone, or confirm, the safety of a drug or device after it has been used in the general population by numerous individuals with a variety of medical conditions.